Liedu Scale

Unlike the magnitude scales that objectively estimate the released seismic energy, Liedu denotes how strongly an earthquake affects a specific place. It is determined by a combination of subjective evaluations (such as human senses and building damages) and objective kinetic measures. Building damages are further refined with a combination of descriptive qualifiers and a numeric evaluation process.

Liedu Scale on Wikipedia


Liedu Seismic Intensity
level description table

Liedu

I

Perceived Shaking: NOT FELT
Senses by people on the ground
Insensible
Damages on Buildings
-
Mean Damage Index
-
Other Damages
-
Peak Ground Acceleration
-

Liedu

II

Perceived Shaking: NOT FELT
Senses by people on the ground
Sensible by very few still indoor people
Damages on Buildings
-
Mean Damage Index
-
Other Damages
-
Peak Ground Acceleration
-

Liedu

III

Perceived Shaking: LIGHT
Senses by people on the ground
Sensible by a few still indoor people
Damages on Buildings
Slight rattle of doors and windows
Mean Damage Index
-
Other Damages
Slight swing of suspended objects
Peak Ground Acceleration
-

Liedu

IV

Perceived Shaking: LIGHT
Senses by people on the ground
Sensible by most people indoors, a few people outdoors; a few wake up from sleep
Damages on Buildings
Rattle of doors and windows
Mean Damage Index
-
Other Damages
Obvious swing of suspended objects; vessels rattle
Peak Ground Acceleration
Less than 0.22 m/s²

Liedu

V

Perceived Shaking: MODERATE
Senses by people on the ground
Commonly sensible by people indoors, sensible by most people outdoors; most wake up from sleep
Damages on Buildings
Noise from vibration of doors, windows, and building frames; falling of dusts, small cracks in plasters, falling of some roof tiles, bricks falling from a few roof-top chimneys
Mean Damage Index
-
Other Damages
Rocking or flipping of unstable objects
Peak Ground Acceleration
0.22–0.44 m/s²

Liedu

VI

Perceived Shaking: STRONG
Senses by people on the ground
Most unable to stand stably, a few scared to running outdoors
Damages on Buildings
Damages - Cracks in the walls, falling of roof tiles, some roof-top chimneys crack or fall apart
Mean Damage Index
0 - 0.10
Other Damages
Cracks in river banks and soft soil; occasional burst of sand and water from saturated sand layers; cracks on some standalone chimneys
Peak Ground Acceleration
0.45–0.89 m/s²

Liedu

VII

Perceived Shaking: VERY STRONG
Senses by people on the ground
Majority scared to running outdoors, sensible by bicycle riders and people in moving motor vehicles
Damages on Buildings
Slight destruction - localized destruction, crack, may continue to be used with small repairs or without repair
Mean Damage Index
011 - 0.30
Other Damages
Collapse of river banks; frequent burst of sand and water from saturated sand layers; many cracks in soft soils; moderate destruction of most standalone chimneys
Peak Ground Acceleration
0.90–1.77 m/s²

Liedu

VIII

Perceived Shaking: SEVERE
Senses by people on the ground
Most swing about, difficult to walk
Damages on Buildings
Moderate destruction - structural destruction occurs, continued usage requires repair
Mean Damage Index
0.31 - 0.50
Other Damages
Cracks appear in hard dry soils; severe destruction of most standalone chimneys; tree tops break; death of people and cattle caused by building destruction
Peak Ground Acceleration
1.78–3.53 m/s²

Liedu

IX

Perceived Shaking: VIOLENT
Senses by people on the ground
Moving people fall
Damages on Buildings
Severe destruction - severe structural destruction, localized collapse, difficult to repair
Mean Damage Index
0.51 - 0.70
Other Damages
Many cracks in hard dry soils; possible cracks and dislocations in bedrock; frequent landslides and collapses; collapse of many standalone chimneys
Peak Ground Acceleration
3.54–7.07 m/s²

Liedu

X+

Perceived Shaking: EXTREME
Senses by people on the ground
Bicycle riders may fall; people in unstable state may fall away; sense of being thrown up
Damages on Buildings
Most collapse
Mean Damage Index
0.71 - 0.90
Other Damages
Cracks in bedrock and earthquake fractures; destruction of bridge arches founded in bedrock; foundation damage or collapse of most standalone chimneys
Peak Ground Acceleration
7.08-14.14 m/s²